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Dentistry is not a one size fits all type of medicine. Dentistry is a very personalized treatment for our dental health. This includes treatment and management of periodontal disease. DNA testing is all the craze with companies like 23andMe. But did you know you can use DNA testing for oral diseases as well? The company is called OralDNA and they have developed three separate testing methods. These include early warning and detection for periodontal disease, personalized treatment for periodontal disease, and checking if you have increased risk of developing HPV related oral cancers.

OralDNA Approach To Periodontal Disease

OralDNA Henderson NV Marielaina Perrone DDS-OralDNA MyPerioPath testing. Oral DNA MyPerioPath is a diagnostic tool for the detection of the type of oral pathogens present in your mouth that can cause periodontal disease. By using this test your dentist can create a personalized care to deal with the pathogens causing the issues in your mouth. There is also evidence that knowing what oral pathogens are present can also determine a patients increased risk of developing Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, alzheimer’s disease, possible stroke, and if pregnant, risk of birth complications. Clinical studies are increasingly linking oral bacteria with systemic disease. For example, inflammation is a major factor in both periodontal disease and heart disease. recent studies have found that a high dose of a common cholesterol medication (atorvastatin) can prevent inflammation from both periodontal inflammation as well as cardiovascular inflammation. Statin family of medicines have other side effects as well not always that good. But this adds to the education that there is a connection between periodontal disease and heart disease.

The Oral DNA MyPerioPath test can determine if the following pathogens are present and in what levels:

  • (Aa) Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
  • (Pg) Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • (Tf) Tannerella forsythia
  • (Td) Treponema denticola
  • (En) Eubacterium nodatum
  • (Fn) Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum
  • (Pi) Prevotella intermedia
  • (Cr) Campylobacter rectus
  • (Pm) Peptostreptococcus (Micromonas) micros
  • (Ec) Eikenella corrodens
  • (Cs) Capnocytophaga species (gingavalis, ochracea, sputigena)

The Oral DNA MyPerioPath testing should be done on an annual basis. Once at start of periodontal disease treatment and then one at end of first year to track progress of personalized treatment and if any changes need to be made to improve periodontal disease state. Oral DNA MyPerioPath is a valuable tool that can allow you and your dentist to measure success and track progress for a more personalized periodontal disease therapy.

Oral DNA MyPerioPath combined With MyPerioID. The Oral DNA MyPerioID test assesses a persons inherited genetic risk to developing periodontal disease as well as other systemic diseases as mentioned above. Combining the 2 tests can give greater control to personalized periodontal disease care and give a fuller picture to you and your dentist. Can also help determine which patients are at increased risk for more severe periodontal disease infections due to an exaggerated immunity response.

Oral DNA OraRisk HPV Test. This test can determine if there is increased risk for HPV related oral cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common virus groups inoral DNA Periodontal Disease las vegas Marielaina Perrone DDS the world (and is linked to the HPV virus in the mouth). Specific types of oral HPV are now considered to be separate and serious risk factors for developing oral cancers. Early detection and identification of the presence or absence of oral HPV is important, as early oral HPV infections do not typically cause any clinical signs or symptoms.

-Oral DNA OraRisk HPV Complete Genotyping Test. This HPV test gives data to your dentist or doctor to establish if there is increased risk for oral cancer and have the ability to make proper referral for further treatment.  Oral DNA OraRisk HPV complete genotyping has the ability to identify a total of 51 different types of oral HPV.

Oral Pathogens Associated With Periodontal Disease

Periodontal researchers have uncovered more than 350 different species of microorganisms that are present in a normal, healthy person’s mouth. Fewer than 5% of these species are linked to periodontal disease. It has also proven that these bacteria that cause periodontal disease, can be shared with your partner or loved ones.

Generally healthy and disease causing bacteria are usually placed into two distinct bacteria categories:

Gram positive aerobic bacteria. These are harmless or helpful bacteria in the mouth.

Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. These are the bacteria known to be related to periodontal disease. When periodontal disease develops, the bacterial balance in the mouth shifts over to gram negative anaerobic bacteria. Inflammation and injury cannot develop without these bacteria flourishing in the mouth.

Common bacteria involved in periodontal disease include:

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Ag) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). These two bacteria appear to be particularly likely to cause aggressive periodontal disease. Both P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, along with multiple deep pockets in the gum, show increased resistance to standard dental treatments for periodontal disease. The presence of P. gingivalis may even have 2x the risk for serious periodontal disease. P. gingivalis produces enzymes, such as one called arginine-specific cysteine proteinase, that has been linked to a disruption of the immune system and lead to subsequent periodontal connective tissue destruction.

Bacteroides forsythus is also strongly linked to periodontal disease.

Other bacteria associated with periodontal disease are Treponema denticolaT. socranskii, and P. intermedia. These bacteria, together with P. gingivalis, are frequently present at the same sites, and are associated with deep periodontal pockets.

Some bacteria are related just to gingivitis, but not development of plaque. They include various streptococcal species.

As you can see there are a variety of bacteria that are linked to periodontal disease. The MyPerioPath testing can isolate the bacteria causing the issues for you. Your dentist can use antibiotic therapy and rinses to personalize care for your particular case.

How does OralDNA testing help to individualize periodontal disease treatment?

The ability to know the bacteria that is causing the issue allows treatment to target that bacteria. Periodontal disease treatment can include the following:

Scaling And Root Planing (S&RP). Also called a “deep” cleaning. The initial goal of any periodontal disease treatment must be the removal of plaque and tartar buildup that is causing irritation and inflammation development. The scaling and root planing procedure is done with this in mind as well as to allow for healing and reattachment of gingival fibers to the tooth. This healing can hopefully reduce size of periodontal pocketing (normal about 3mm).

Antibitoics Application. This can include administering this via a pill orally or placed into local areas that need help. Arestin is an antibiotic that can be placed directly into a periodontal pocket and give local therapy. This is important as it reaches places your dentist cannot but it also does not have the side effects of a systemic pill. The use of antibiotics will help control the overgrowth of the “bad” bacteria that is flourishing due to periodontal disease.

-Dental Hygiene Instructions. This is a staple of any periodontal disease treatment. This disease will be an ongoing problem that needs maintenance to stave it off. This includes proper brushing, flossing, and rinsing. Your dentist may even prescribe a prescription oral rinse to control bacteria or even Periogen. Periogen is an oral rinse that has been shown to help dissolve tartar between visits to the dentist. By lowering amount of tartar in the mouth you are hopefully also lowering the irritatation and inflammatory response.

Periodontal Disease Treatment With Oral DNA Testing Conclusion

DNA testing has been a great tool in many facets of society. It can also be one for dentistry thanks to OralDNA. There is an increased cost for this type of testing but it comes with great benefits in controlling a disease that can be difficult to manage. Any advantage will save you time and discomfort over time during treatment as well as possible tooth loss and systemic health maintenance. Periodontal disease linked to heart disease (as well as other diseases) should be motivation enough to get this under control. See your dentist at the first signs of periodontal disease and get your health back on track.



What Is Botox Cosmetic? Botox cosmetic is a neurotoxin derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. If this toxin sounds familiar you may have heard that it can also cause a serious type of food poisoning called botulism. In medicine with controlled dosing, botox acts by weakening or paralyzing s specific muscle or muscles. They can also block the pathway of certain nerves. Botox is a powerful poison however when used correctly and under right dosage, it has a number of medical applications.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Medical Uses

Botox cosmetic is used in small doses in the medical community for the following conditions:

-In plastic surgery to temporary smooth facial wrinkles. Important to note wrinkles caused by sun damage and gravity will not respond to Botox.

-Control overactive underarm sweating.

-Control cervical dystonia. Cervical dystonia is a neurological disorder which can cause severe shoulder and neck contractions.

-Uncontrolled blining of eyes (bleparospasm).

-Overactive bladder.

-Misaligned eyes. Also called a Strabismus.

-Chronic migraine headaches.

Injected Botox prevents the release of acetylcholine (necessary for contraction of muscles). Botox causes a reduction in abnormal muscle contraction, allowing the muscles to become less rigid.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Procedure

Botox cosmetic is administered using very fine gauge needles directly into the specific neuromuscular tissues necessary. The administration of botox cosmetic generally takes just a few minutes and should not require any local anesthesia. The results are generally noticed about 3-7 days following botox cosmetic treatment.

Botox cosmetic should not be administered to pregnant or lactating women, or by people who have had a previous allergic reaction to Botox cosmetic.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Dentistry

Your dentist can use botox cosmetic for the following issues:

-Ability to smooth and soften crow’s feet, forehead furrows, frown lines, lip lines and bunny lines.

-Reduce neck bands.

-Reduce pain from headache due to tension in muscles in the head, face, and neck.

-Following Orthodontic Treatment completion. – In some patients teeth will relapse and this may be caused by genetic placement of that individual’s musculature. For many patients an over active mentalis muscle is often the cause of relapse of the teeth and may cause spasm of the muscles. Botox cosmetic gives your cosmetic dentist the ability to reduce or remove these spasms and contractions allowing for only a limited relapse following completion of orthodontic treatment.

-Improve the appearance of skin dimpling of the chin.

-Reduce pain from headaches due to occlusal (bite) issues.

-Bruxism reduction.

-Lift the corners of the mouth.

-Soften a jawline that is square.

-Correct a gummy smile due to over retracted upper lips.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Training

A dentist is the perfect practitioner for delivery of botox cosmetic in the head and neck region. A dentist’s training in this area exceeds most medical practitioners but not all. A well trained dentist will give you similar if not better results than a medical doctor due to advanced training. Dentists are also the known specialists in the oral and maxillofacial areas. Dentists are much more knowledgeable than most other medical practitioners in the muscles of mastication and the muscles of facial expression which recieve the botox cosmetic the most. When selecting a dentist for botox cosmetic and look for one that has the proper Botox cosmetic certification and insurance. Botox certification should inlcude at minimum 16 hours of live hands on patient training.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Before And After

What Is Botox Cosmetic Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDS

What Is Botox Cosmetic Marielaina Perrone DDS




Is Gingivitis CurableGingivitis is simply inflammation of the gum tissue that surrounds the teeth. Ginigivitis especially in its earliest form is painless with mild symptoms. This causes many to be unaware that they are in the midst of the first stage of periodontal disease. If gingivitis is left untreated it can progress to more advanced stages of periodontal disease. Is gingivitis curable? Yes with proper professional care as well as diligent home dental hygiene care.

Causes Of Gingivitis

Gingivitis develops when plaque builds up along our teeth and gums. The plaque can then turn into what is called tartar. Tartar is a hard calcified deposit that forms on the teeth. This plaque and tartar acts as an irritant to your gum tissues. Your gum tissues react by starting the bodies inflammatory process. When at home dental hygiene is insufficient, bacteria in dental plaque and tartar release acids that stimulate the inflammatory response by the body. This will cause the gum tissues to appear puffy, red, and bleed easily upon brushing.

Poor dental hygiene is the main cause of gingivitis. There are others that can contribute to its development. These can include:

Is Gingivitis Curable Las vegas Marielaina Perrone DDSPrescription or Over The Counter Medications. Many prescription and over-the-counter medications have a common side effect causing dry mouth or xerostomia, and even sometimes gum overgrowth. Salivary flow is important to help keep your teeth clean by controlling the growth of bacteria as well as maintaining a neutral environment to prevent development of tooth decay. That means that decreased salivary flow can increase your risk for gingivitis (as well as tooth decay). Many common medications including antidepressants, blood pressure medicines,  asthma inhalers, and common cold medications can reduce salivary flow in your mouth. Seizure medications, and some blood pressure medications can cause the gum tissue to grow abnormally. This extra tissue can make it more difficult to maintain dental hygiene. It is important you always read the side effects for any medications you are taking to ensure you take the proper steps like drinking more water and brushing more often following meals.

Hormone Surge (as in pregnancy or puberty)

Breathing Thru Your Mouth. Being a mouth breather your mouth will dry out quickly overnight. Oral dryness will increase the development of gingivitis and eventually periodontal disease.

Dry Mouth

Inadequate Nutrition (Vitamin Deficiencies). A diet that is severely lacking in calcium and vitamins B and C can put you at risk for increased incidence of periodontal disease.

Systemic Disease (example Diabetes). Viral infections and fungal infections can cause periodontal disease. Oral Thrush is a good example. Oral thrush occurs when a type of fungus that is normally occurring in the mouth gets out of control and forms oral lesions that can infect the tongue and gums. Another infection can be caused by the herpes virus. It is important to get these infections under control as soon as possible as they are extremely treatable in most cases. There are also other systemic diseases that can effect the oral tissue, such as oral cancer, and diabetes.

Smoking Or Tobacco Use. Smoking tobacco products have a direct effect on our periodontal tissues by decreasing blood circulation to those tissues. This will cause an increase in inflammation. Chewing tobacco or smokeless tobacco is a direct irritant to our tissues. The presence of tobacco on our gums can actually cause the gum tissues to erode.

Is Gingivitis Curable? Yes!

Gingivitis is curable in its earliest stages and can be easily reversed back to a healthy state. The following steps can help restore your periodontal tissues back to health:

Brushing Properly. Surprisingly, many people do no brush correctly. It is recommended to use a soft, nylon brush with a soft touch to prevent gum tissue damage. A gentle, back and forth motion at a 45 degree angle is the preferred way to complete this easy task.

-Floss Regularly. Flossing should be a daily ritual. Flossing can remove food particles and plaque. Flossing should also be done gently as not to cause trauma.

Mouthwash Use. Rinsing with an anti bacterial mouthwash can help dislodge food particles following meals. Rinsing with just plain water is helpful as well to maintain pH balance in your mouth.

-Improved Diet. Choosing a well balanced diet can contribute to better gum health as well as overall health. Be sure to get plenty of Vitamin C and calcium, which can decrease the risk of experiencing swollen gums.

Reduce Stress. Increased stress can have a definite impact on our hormone levels. One hormone in particular, Cortisol can lead to gum inflammation. Use stress reducers whenever possible.

Regular Dental Visits. Seeing your dentist and dental hygienist regularly can help prevent and diagnose any issues quickly and easily.

Is Gingivitis Curable? Self Diagnosis

Generally, the first sign most people notice is bleeding upon tooth brushing. Upon closer inspection, you might also notice your gum tissues will be red and inflamed. If you have any concerns contact your dentist for a complete evaluation and discuss how to answer the question is gingivitis curable. Other signs of gingivitis can include:

– pink toothpaste when rinsing

Halitosis (Bad Breath)

-Redness of Gum Tissues

-Visible Tartar Present

-Constant Unexplained Bad Taste In Mouth

-Ulcerations Of The Gum Tissues

Is Gingivitis Curable? Conclusion

Is gingivitis curable with proper dental hygiene and lifestyle changes? The answer is a definite YES! By brushing and flossing regularly, you can have healthy gums again.See your dentist regularly for a happier, healthy smile.

Opting to choose dental implants to replace a lost tooth or teeth can be a difficult decision. Becoming educated on the positive aspects of dental implants can help you choose dental implants in an educated manner. Dental implants when completed by a well trained implant dentist have an over 98% success rate. Below you will find the top 10 reasons to choose dental implants to restore your smile to its natural state and beyond.

Dental implants are the perfect choice for people in overall good dental health who may have lost a single tooth or multiple teeth due to development of periodontal disease, traumatic injury, or just about any other reason. Dental implants are actually more tooth saving than traditional crowns and bridges. If you choose dental implants they will not require shaving  down of healthy adjacent teeth or rely on adjacent teeth for their support.

Choose Dental Implants Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDSSufficient bone is necessary to support the dental implants, and the ideal candidates are those that have healthy periodontal tissues that are free of periodontal disease. Dental implants become connected with the underlying bone and periodontal tissues in the mouth. When you choose dental implants it is necessary to have good dental hygiene for long term success. With dental technique and material advances, dental bone grafts are now more successful than ever and can be used to increase your natural bone allowing dental implants to be an option. Be honest with your implant dentist regarding health issues. Clinical studies have shown an increased risk of failure of dental implants in patients who smoke. Generally dental implants are frequently only placed  after a patient has ceased smoking. If you choose dental implants you want to give yourself the greatest chance for success.

Top Reasons To Choose Dental Implants

1. Restore Your Smile. When you choose dental implants versus other forms of tooth replacement they need to be natural looking in appearance. Any dental restoration should restore and enhance your smile back to its natural state. Dental implants as a stand alone dental restoration or a dental implant supported denture should look and feel natural.

2. Prevent Bone Loss. When you choose dental implants, you are choosing to maintain bone height and density in your mouth. When we lose a tooth or teeth, our bodies natural inclination is to have bone resorb since it is not needed in that area when a tooth is lost. With proper placement of dental implants the body responds by maintaining bone in that area. This will maintain a youthful appearance and reduce wrinkling around the lips and mouth.

3. Increased Durability. Dental implants are extremely durable and highly successful. A well placed dental implant that is cared for should last a lifetime. This point alone should make you choose dental implants over traditional dental restorations.

4. Nutritional Enjoyment. With dental implants, food choice will not be a limiting factor. Once dental implants have healed you will be able to eat anything you want without restrictions based on your teeth. This will also lead to a healthier you as you can eat proper nutrition as necessary. With an implant supported denture, patients are able to eat a wide range of healthy foods that can include all the necessary food groups for improved nutrition and health. Chewy and crunchy foods such as carrots, lettuce and apples which are often avoided by denture wearers can be enjoyed once again when you choose dental implants.

5. Increased Self Confidence and Self Esteem. With a natural restoration and enhancement of your smile, you will immediately feel more confident. This can increase quality of life in many ways including increased job opportunities as well as romantic ones. Increased esteem and confidence will also lead to a healthier outlook on life and increased longevity. Traditional removable dentures can often over time become loose and not fit properly. This can cause the dentures to fall out and not be stable in the mouth. When you choose dental implants in combination with a denture it is fixed in place anchored by the dental implants. Your denture will not be able to fall or become loose. This will lead to increased confidence in work and social aspects of your life.

6. Better Articulated Speech. Since dental implants are fixed in place they will act like your natural teeth allowing you to speak without issue.

7. Impossible To Lose Dental Implants. Unlike a removable denture, dental implants are fixed in place and cannot be lost unless removed by your dentist.

8. Increased Convenience And Comfort. Removable dentures are notorious for causing sore spots inside the mouth. As the bones in the mouth remodel, your dentures will need adjustments and possible relining to fit comfortably again. Dental implants will not cause pain or discomfort. Removable dentures can be very inconvenient since you must remove them  at night as well as for cleaning them. They can also require messy adhesives in some patients. Patients with dental implants will not experience these situations as they will stay in the mouth permanently. Traditional removable dentures over time will often require replacement and repair. Dental implants may have an initial cost that is higher than removable dentures, they do not require a lifetime of costly dental maintenance.

9. No Interruption In Taste. Removable dentures are bulky and can interrupt the taste of our foods. Dental implants do not cover up extensive parts of our mouth allowing us the freedom to enjoy the taste and textures of our favorite food when you choose dental implants.

10. Maintenance. When you choose dental implants, you choose a low maintenance option. You will brush and floss just like your natural teeth. Since they are not removable, you do not need to buy special denture cleaners or denture adhesives. It is important to note that dental implants can be subject to periodontal disease or peri implantitis. So it is important to maintain good dental hygiene.

Top 10 Reasons To Choose Dental Implants Conclusion

When you choose dental implants, it is important to choose wisely. An educated patient is the best patient. Making an informed decision will give you a lifetime of smiles. Any questions ask your implant dentist and they can review all options with you.