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Gummy smile is a smile that shows an excessive amount of gum tissues under the upper lip. The goal is to create a more toothy smile. There several treatment options for those with a gummy smile. Some surgical and some non surgical. The presence of a gummy smile should not be considered an abnormal condition or even unhealthy. It is just a normal variation of our anatomy. This does not stop those with a gummy smile from feeling self conscious in the way they smile. This may cause them to refrain from wide smiles.

What Is A Gummy Smile?

A gummy smile will make our teeth look short and stumpy. In reality, the gum tissue is just showing in proportion to your teeth than the rest of us. There are a variety of reasons for this. These can include:

Gummy Smile Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDS-Higher than normal bone levels.

-Possibility of Incomplete Eruption Of Teeth.

-Excess Gingival Tissues.

-Abnormally Thick Gingival Fibers.

-Thin lips.

-Upper Lip pulls up too high while smiling.

The gummy smile may present challenges beyond esthetics. Dental hygiene can be a real issues for the patients with excess tissue. This can lead to increased incidence of tooth decay as well periodontal disease development. The excessive gingival tissues will hinder attempts to keep areas clean and free of plaque and tartar. People with a gummy smile tend to present with puffy, red gum tissues. This is called gingivitis and is the earliest form of periodontal disease. It is reversible. Another note, is that most people notice a gummy smile only on front teeth but it can be present on back teeth as well.

Treatment For A Gummy Smile

An experienced, well trained cosmetic dentist will be well versed in treatment for a gummy smile. In fact, the gummy smile procedure can be one of the most rewarding for both dentist and patient alike. The change is immediate and patients report increased self confidence and ability to interact socially better than before.

Below you will find detailed list of gummy smile treatment options. The procedure used will depend on why the gummy smile exists.

Surgical Treatment Of Gummy Smile

Gingivectomy (another term is gingivoplasty which includes gum contouring). This dental procedure is simply removal of excess gingival tissue from around the teeth. Removing excess gingival tissue is just the first step. Your cosmetic dentist will remove and reshape the tissues for an esthetic result. You would be surprised how little gingival tissue is actually removed in most cases. Your dentist a laser, an electrical cautery unit, or make periodontal incisions to remove and reshape the gum tissues. Local anesthetic is necessary during gummy smile procedure for comfort. This gummy smile treatment will not require any sutures and generally the gum tissues heal within 1-2 weeks following the procedure. A gingivectomy is usually the recommended gummy smile procedure when only a few teeth are affected by the gummy smile issue. In other cases, bone tissues may need to be remodeled as well.

-Crown Lengthening. This gummy smile procedure allows for your dentist to remove bone tissues as well as gum tissues. This procedure can be a bit more advanced in technique but still fairly easy for most periodontists.

Non-Surgical Treatment Of Gummy Smile

Botox For Gummy Smile. The use of Botox is fairly new for treatment of gummy smile. The botox application relaxes the muscles (levator) in the upper lip causing the lip to not curl under or lift as high upon smiling. The botox relaxes the lip for a more balanced smile. This still allows you to smile, it just limits the height of the upper lip movement. The treatment lasts about 3 months so no worries about permanent changes.

Both surgical and non surgical procedures have very low risks and are easily completed. Obviously, the botox injections will be the least invasive but in some cases botox alone will not give the desired results. Using dermal fillers along with Botox may also help those with thinner lips.

Can A Gummy Smile Be Fixed? Conclusion

Upon healing, the results of a gummy smile treatment can be quite dramatic and striking. Both patient and Doctor alike will be in awe of the change. It is that dramatic generally. This treatment can be a real change for some in their outlook on life. Study after study has shown when we feel good about ourselves it changes how others perceive us opening doors socially and in business. Most patients return and have one complaint. Why didn’t we do this sooner? Don’t wait if this is an issue for you. See your dentist and talk over the best options for your smile.



Periodontal disease is a progressive disease of the structures (bone and gingival tissues) surrounding our teeth. It is believed that about 65 million americans have some form of periodontitis. Periodontitis is the advanced form of periodontal disease. Once the disease state reaches periodontitis it means there have been some form of permanent loss of bone or gingival tissues to the disease. In those 65 and over this number jumps to 70% of that population. These numbers are startling. Luckily, there has been extensive research into periodontal disease and new treatment modes have been developed. One such method is treating periodontal disease with Arestin.

What Is Arestin?

Arestin (minocycline hydrochloride) is an antibiotic that comes in the form of micrspheres. These microspheres are placed locally into areas of concern. Periodontal disease generally hits certain areas over others initially. This gives us a chance to localize treatment of periodontal disease with arestin.

Treating Periodontal Disease With Arestin

Periodontal disease if left untreated will develop deeper and deeper “periodontal pockets” around out teeth. The normal space between our teeth, gums and bone is approximately 3 mm. When periodontal disease begins to damage these areas these pockets can widen and deepen as bone is lost and gum tissues lose their connections to our teeth. As the periodontal disease develops and progresses it is not unheard of to have periodontal pocketing in the 6-8 mm range. That is a doubling over normal pocket size. This allows food and bacteria to penetrate these areas and create even more damage to gingival tissues and bone. Once these support structures become damage they can cause our teeth to become loose and eventually lost them.

The standard course of treatment for periodontitis is scaling and root planing (S&RP). This treatment is highly effective for treatment of periodontal disease.

-Periodontal scaling of teeth with instruments involves manually removing all the plaque, tartar, and food from on and around our teeth.

-Periodontal planing can smooth out rough areas on our teeth’s roots where bacteria and plaque can attach.

Scaling and root planing has been our #1 treatment for periodontal disease for decades. Where does treating periodontal disease with Arestin come in? Combining the use of Arestin with the traditional scaling and root planing gives dentists and periodontists a real chance to reduce the periodontal pocketing around our teeth. In routine scaling and root planing, depending on depth of pockets, it may be difficult to reach to the entire depths of those pockets. Everyone’s anatomy is different so some areas are easy to reach while others might be more difficult based on root structures and how the periodontal pockets form. None are uniform. Using microspheres of Arestin allows your dentist to reach the bottom of those pockets and destroy harmful bacteria before further destruction of tissues can occur.

Treating Periodontal Disease With Arestin Procedure

The following is what to expect if you are undergoing treatment of periodontal disease with Arestin.

Diagnosis of Periodontal Disease. In its earliest form (Gingivitis) there is no damage to bone or gingival tissues and can be reversed thru professional cleaning and increased at home dental hygiene care. In periodontitis, destruction has begun. A simple professional cleaning is no longer as effective. Diagnosis of periodontal disease is achieved thru x-rays and use of a periodontal probe. This dental instrument allows your dentist or hygienist to measure around the teeth and see what areas might be affected by periodontal disease. A normal reading of 3 mm means tissues are healthy. Anything over that raises a red flag and leads to a diagnosis of periodontal disease.

-Treatment Plan To Fight Periodontal Disease. Your dentist will explain these results to you and discuss treatment necessary. The first line of defense is always a scaling and root planing (also called a deep cleaning). Your dentist may now offer Arestin in conjunction with this type of cleaning to give you a better chance of stopping this problem from developing further and also repairing tissues around our teeth.

-Treatment With Scaling And Root Planing.

-Arestin Application Following Scaling And Root Planing. The arestin is in the form of a microsphere. This allows the arestin to release the antibiotic gradually over time to fight the bacteria in the deepest depths of those periodontal pockets. It is able to target areas scaling and root planing instruments just cannot reach.

Is Arestin Effective?

Yes! Studies have shown that is more effective in treating pocket reduction when paired with Scaling and Root Planing Vs S&RP alone. In fact clinical trials have shown significant pocket reductions in as little as 1-3 months and maintenance for at least 9 months. It has also shown significant reductions in our more difficult to treat patients. Those include the smoker’s, ones with a history of heart disease, and those over age 50. The chart below shows those statistics.

Periodontal Disease With Arestin Marielaina Perrone DDS

Is Arestin A Miracle Drug? Conclusion

Arestin is not a miracle drug. But it will help controlling a very difficult progressive disease. Periodontal disease is difficult to control because it relies on many factors. The biggest one is at home dental hygiene. Patients need to understand their dental care does not begin and end inside the walls of their dental office. Fighting periodontal disease is a daily battle. Periodontal disease treatment with Arestin can help reverse some of those issues but it will not be a cure for it.

 

 



A dental overbite is when your upper front teeth overlap with your lower front teeth. Most patients have at least a small dental overbite. Orthodontic braces can fix many issues including a dental overbite. An overbite can have a negative impact on our cosmetic smile.

Causes Of A Dental Overbite?

The term occlusion is a dental term that refers to how our teeth align with each other. A dental overbite is a type of malocclusion (a deviation form normal occlusion). A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close. A dental overbite is when a patient’s upper teeth sticks out fart beyond the lower teeth. Dental overbites are usually a genetic trait passed on down from parents. It can also be caused by a behavioral habit leading to malformed jaw development. These can include thumb sucking, prolonged use of a pacifier, teeth grinding, tongue thrust issues, biting our nails, or chewing on objects. TMJ disorder can also cause a malocclusion as well as loss of teeth as the our teeth shift.

Dental Overbite Henderson NV Marielaina Perrone DDSDental malocclusions can fall into 1 of 3 categories:

Class One Malocclusion. This type of malocclusion indicates when a normal dental bite is with a slight overlap of the upper teeth. This is the most common malocclusion.

Class Two Malocclusion. This type of malocclusion is diagnosed when the dental overbite is severe. Another term for this is retrognathic.

Class Three Maloccluison. This is a severe dental underbite (when the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth). Another term for this is prognathic.

2 Types of Dental Overbites

-Vertical Overbite. This occurs when the top teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth.

-Horizontal Overbite. This happens when the top teeth protrude over the lower teeth.

Dental overbites can also be classified as either dental or skeletal. A dental overbite means that the teeth are the root cause of the dental overbite. A skeletal overbite identifies the jaw as the root cause of the dental overbite.

Treatments Of A Dental Overbite

Orthodontic braces are the #1 treatment for a dental overbite. A dental overbite can be diagnosed by a dentist or orthodontist. There is not an age limit on overbite treatment. It will just be easier on still growing children vs adults. It is usually very easy to see visually so parents can understand easily. In some cases, radiographs and dental impressions will be needed to fully assess the dental overbite. Orthodontic braces along with dental elastic bands . These bands along with orthodontic braces will slowly and methodically place forces on the jaw and teeth to bring things into a more cosmetic alignment thus eliminating the dental overbite.

In a severe dental overbite, removal of teeth (usually premolars) may be necessary or even dental surgery to re position the lower jaw.

A dental overbite can create issues in dental hygiene which can lead to an increased incidence of tooth decay and periodontal disease.

Possible Dental Overbite Treatment For Children and Young Adults

-Early removal of baby teeth. This will give permanent teeth extra room for eruption into the mouth.

-Growth modification appliance. This will be used during growth periods to help better position the jaw

-Orthodontic Braces. Use of braces will apply forces in a direct way slowly moving the teeth to correct the overbite along with the jaw.

-Orthodontic Retainers. These orthodontic devices are used following orthodontic treatment to help to keep the teeth in place after completion of treatment.

Possible Dental Overbite Treatment For Adults

– Orthodontic Braces. This allows movement of the teeth to correct a dental overbite.

-Teeth removal. Both dentists and orthodontists try to avoid removing permanent teeth but this will become necessary in very severe dental overbite cases. This is to allow the teeth more freedom to move.

-Dental Surgery. This may be needed for skeletal dental overbites that can only be corrected with surgery.

Untreated Dental Overbite?

If a dental overbite is left untreated there can be significant issues both dentally and for our health. The following are possible complications that can arise from not treating a dental overbite:

-TMJ Disorders including jaw pain.

-Increased risk of tooth decay and periodontal disease.

-Headaches.

-Pain upon eating and chewing.

Sleep Apnea.

Speech issues like lisps.

Dental Overbite Conclusion

Your dentist or orthodontist will be able to easily diagnose your dental overbite and offer you options to correct it. We all want a perfect smile but a dental overbite can cause other dental issues beyond cosmetics. Remember to see your dentist regularly for dental examinations and professional cleanings to keep your smile healthy and happy for a lifetime!




Teeth whitening is by far the #1 cosmetic dentistry procedure (estimates say it is around 100 million per year in USA alone) performed every day around the globe. There are many reasons for teeth whitening being so popular. A major reason is our desire to look more youthful. Teeth whitening can turn back the clock on your smile. The next reason and just as important is cost. Teeth whitening is one of the least expensive cosmetic dentistry procedures which allows it to be available to a wider range of patients. Teeth whitening might seem like a modern phenomena but it is not. Generations of people have been trying to brighten and whiten their smiles since the earliest days of civilization. Surprisingly, the basic ingredients used today have been around since early in the 19th century.

Marielaina Perrone DDS Teeth Whitening Las Vegas

Teeth Whitening Las Vegas

Earliest Teeth Whitening Attempts

The earliest attempts at teeth whitening were primitive to say the least. The earliest people on earth used sticks and thorns to attempt to clean their teeth. Civilization is what led to people wanting to look their best. Looking good with white teeth was considered a sign of wealth and possible nobility. The Roman empire and Egyptian empire were ahead of their times. The Romans used a paste for their teeth composed of goat’s milk and urine! While the Egyptians used pumice and wine vinegar. The Egyptians were heading in the right direction as vinegar can remove stains and pumice can smooth the surface. Around the 12th century, the medical doctors recommended a sage and salt rub for teeth whitening. By the 17th century, the local barber was called upon for dental advice. These barbers would offer services to use a metal file to roughen the surface of clients teeth and then paint on nitric acid. The idea is to roughen the surface so the nitric acid can stick and begin to remove staining. In the mid to late 18th century, oxalic acid was used for teeth whitening again by the medical community. I am sure by now you are horrified by these crude attempts at teeth whitening in ancient times. These techniques probably had limited success but caused maximum damage.

Modern Teeth Whitening Techniques

Luckily, dentistry has advanced and we have a better understanding of dental materials and dental techniques. There are various methods offered both in home and in the dental office. Below will be a review of the different teeth whitening methods available today to safely whiten your teeth.

Teeth Whitening Toothpastes. Cheapest method of teeth whitening but also the least effective with very limited teeth whitening results. There are many different teeth whitening toothpastes on the market today by various different brands. They all tout great results but in reality the results are highly variable from patient to patient. For some with light staining this method may work well enough to make you happy. While others with extensive staining they will see little to no benefit. But in the end, for a few pennies more it is worth a try as we are all brushing daily anyway!

Teeth Whitening Strips. This method is a bit more expensive than just using a teeth whitening toothpaste. These are sold over the counter at your local pharmacy or big box store. The active ingredient in teeth whitening strips is usually the same as professional teeth whitening products. However, the dosage and concentration is lowered for safety. Again these may work well for some but not so well for others. These are also harder to use as they have a bit of a learning curve with them. These teeth whitening strips must be placed evenly across all your teeth and cannot be applied to a single tooth that might need more help than the others. These have also been known to irritate the gum tissues if the placement is off or they move during use.

ProfessionaTeeth Whitening With Custom Fit Dental Trays. This is a personalized cosmetic dentistry procedure. Your dentist will evaluate your smile and create custom fir dental trays. These trays will be comfortable to wear but also evenly distribute teeth whitening gel across all teeth quite easily. This method also allows for isolation of just a few teeth if needed. These custom fit dental trays can be worn day or night usually for a period of 1-4 weeks. This option is flexible and provides excellent results. The only downside to this method vs the previous two is cost. This method will carry a higher cost but the results are far batter. Each patient will need to weigh the pros and cons of each method for what is best for their individual smile.

Teeth Whitening Performed By Your Dentist. This method carries the highest cost but also gives you the fastest, most effective results of all teeth whitening methods. This method is completed 30 minutes to an hour right in your dentist’s office. A special light and teeth whitening gel is used for this procedure. The teeth whitening gel is highly concentrated and is accelerated by the special teeth whitening light. This makes this method highly effective and very efficient. The main disadvantage is this comes with a higher cost but I am sure you can understand why.

Disadvantages Of Teeth Whitening

Tooth sensitivity and gum tissue irritation can occur in any of the teeth whitening methods listed above. If either occurs it is best to contact your dentist. They will probably recommend a visit to office to discuss options or advise to cease using the teeth whitening products for a day or two to let things settle down. Gum tissue irritation and teeth sensitivity is generally reversible. Your dentist may recommend a sensitive teeth toothpaste like sensodyne or a topical gel (orajel) to relieve gum tissue irritation.

Maintenance Tips Of Teeth Whitening

Teeth whitening is highly effective but staining will occur again over time. Teeth whitening is not a one and done dental procedure. Touch ups will be needed over time. Below are some dental tips to maintain teeth whitening longer:

-Brush after every meal or at very least rinse mouth with water after eating and drinking.

-Floss to remove plaque foods trapped between the teeth

-Following teeth whitening it is important to limit staining foods and drink for about 2-3 days.

-Use a straw to drink fluids that can cause staining of your teeth.

-Lose the Habits like smoking and drinking which are known to stain our teeth

History Of Teeth Whitening Conclusion

Teeth whitening using modern dental materials has proven to safe and highly effective in whitening our smiles. The limited drawbacks can be overcome and should not hinder the desire for a whiter, more youthful smile.