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Teeth whitening is by far the #1 cosmetic dentistry procedure (estimates say it is around 100 million per year in USA alone) performed every day around the globe. There are many reasons for teeth whitening being so popular. A major reason is our desire to look more youthful. Teeth whitening can turn back the clock on your smile. The next reason and just as important is cost. Teeth whitening is one of the least expensive cosmetic dentistry procedures which allows it to be available to a wider range of patients. Teeth whitening might seem like a modern phenomena but it is not. Generations of people have been trying to brighten and whiten their smiles since the earliest days of civilization. Surprisingly, the basic ingredients used today have been around since early in the 19th century.

Marielaina Perrone DDS Teeth Whitening Las Vegas

Teeth Whitening Las Vegas

Earliest Teeth Whitening Attempts

The earliest attempts at teeth whitening were primitive to say the least. The earliest people on earth used sticks and thorns to attempt to clean their teeth. Civilization is what led to people wanting to look their best. Looking good with white teeth was considered a sign of wealth and possible nobility. The Roman empire and Egyptian empire were ahead of their times. The Romans used a paste for their teeth composed of goat’s milk and urine! While the Egyptians used pumice and wine vinegar. The Egyptians were heading in the right direction as vinegar can remove stains and pumice can smooth the surface. Around the 12th century, the medical doctors recommended a sage and salt rub for teeth whitening. By the 17th century, the local barber was called upon for dental advice. These barbers would offer services to use a metal file to roughen the surface of clients teeth and then paint on nitric acid. The idea is to roughen the surface so the nitric acid can stick and begin to remove staining. In the mid to late 18th century, oxalic acid was used for teeth whitening again by the medical community. I am sure by now you are horrified by these crude attempts at teeth whitening in ancient times. These techniques probably had limited success but caused maximum damage.

Modern Teeth Whitening Techniques

Luckily, dentistry has advanced and we have a better understanding of dental materials and dental techniques. There are various methods offered both in home and in the dental office. Below will be a review of the different teeth whitening methods available today to safely whiten your teeth.

Teeth Whitening Toothpastes. Cheapest method of teeth whitening but also the least effective with very limited teeth whitening results. There are many different teeth whitening toothpastes on the market today by various different brands. They all tout great results but in reality the results are highly variable from patient to patient. For some with light staining this method may work well enough to make you happy. While others with extensive staining they will see little to no benefit. But in the end, for a few pennies more it is worth a try as we are all brushing daily anyway!

Teeth Whitening Strips. This method is a bit more expensive than just using a teeth whitening toothpaste. These are sold over the counter at your local pharmacy or big box store. The active ingredient in teeth whitening strips is usually the same as professional teeth whitening products. However, the dosage and concentration is lowered for safety. Again these may work well for some but not so well for others. These are also harder to use as they have a bit of a learning curve with them. These teeth whitening strips must be placed evenly across all your teeth and cannot be applied to a single tooth that might need more help than the others. These have also been known to irritate the gum tissues if the placement is off or they move during use.

ProfessionaTeeth Whitening With Custom Fit Dental Trays. This is a personalized cosmetic dentistry procedure. Your dentist will evaluate your smile and create custom fir dental trays. These trays will be comfortable to wear but also evenly distribute teeth whitening gel across all teeth quite easily. This method also allows for isolation of just a few teeth if needed. These custom fit dental trays can be worn day or night usually for a period of 1-4 weeks. This option is flexible and provides excellent results. The only downside to this method vs the previous two is cost. This method will carry a higher cost but the results are far batter. Each patient will need to weigh the pros and cons of each method for what is best for their individual smile.

Teeth Whitening Performed By Your Dentist. This method carries the highest cost but also gives you the fastest, most effective results of all teeth whitening methods. This method is completed 30 minutes to an hour right in your dentist’s office. A special light and teeth whitening gel is used for this procedure. The teeth whitening gel is highly concentrated and is accelerated by the special teeth whitening light. This makes this method highly effective and very efficient. The main disadvantage is this comes with a higher cost but I am sure you can understand why.

Disadvantages Of Teeth Whitening

Tooth sensitivity and gum tissue irritation can occur in any of the teeth whitening methods listed above. If either occurs it is best to contact your dentist. They will probably recommend a visit to office to discuss options or advise to cease using the teeth whitening products for a day or two to let things settle down. Gum tissue irritation and teeth sensitivity is generally reversible. Your dentist may recommend a sensitive teeth toothpaste like sensodyne or a topical gel (orajel) to relieve gum tissue irritation.

Maintenance Tips Of Teeth Whitening

Teeth whitening is highly effective but staining will occur again over time. Teeth whitening is not a one and done dental procedure. Touch ups will be needed over time. Below are some dental tips to maintain teeth whitening longer:

-Brush after every meal or at very least rinse mouth with water after eating and drinking.

-Floss to remove plaque foods trapped between the teeth

-Following teeth whitening it is important to limit staining foods and drink for about 2-3 days.

-Use a straw to drink fluids that can cause staining of your teeth.

-Lose the Habits like smoking and drinking which are known to stain our teeth

History Of Teeth Whitening Conclusion

Teeth whitening using modern dental materials has proven to safe and highly effective in whitening our smiles. The limited drawbacks can be overcome and should not hinder the desire for a whiter, more youthful smile.



Orthodontic braces has always been a very popular dental service especially for children. The use of orthodontic braces can straighten our teeth, fix issues with the way our teeth fit together, and cosmetically enhance our smiles. Orthodontic braces are not just used for cosmetic reasons. Having straight teeth will improve dental hygiene and decrease chance of developing tooth decay or periodontal disease. Orthodontic braces can also help correct speech issues like a lisp.

Do I Need Orthodontic Braces?

The average age most children will see their dentist or orthodontist regarding orthodontic braces is right around age 7. In general, your family dentist will be able to evaluate when it is the appropriate time to see an orthodontist. If you see them every 6 months like expected orthodontic braces will not be a surprise. Orthodontic braces treatment is determined by the type of problems each patient presents with. Certain issues can be treated prior to all of the primary teeth coming out while others must wait until all the adult teeth are in. Obviously this is very common in adult orthodontic braces treatment.

Orthodontic Braces Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDSBelow you will find a list of the possible reasons many children need orthodontic braces. These include:

Early loss of primary teeth. Sometimes there will be a lag between loss of primary teeth and eruption of permanent teeth. This could be due to early tooth loss from tooth decay or genetics. Our primary teeth act as space savers and if they are not present the permanent teeth will find it harder or easier to erupt into the mouth.

Overcrowding of teeth or crooked teeth. This may seem like strictly a cosmetic issue but it is not. Overcrowding or crooked teeth will cause issues with dental hygiene issues as well as increased incidence of tooth decay and periodontal disease. Crowded teeth is the #1 issue addressed by orthodontic braces.

Too Much Space Between Teeth. Over crowding is not the only issue that can cause problems. Some patients may be missing a tooth due to genetic factors or thru loss or could have proportionally small teeth. Luckily, in most cases too much space generally makes orthodontic braces treatment a bit easier.

Jaw Development Issues. This can include a recessed lower jaw or a protruding lower jaw. Either of these are significant developmental issues that may need surgery to correct. You may experience popping or shifting of your jaws as well. This may be corrected with orthodontic braces.

Teeth Alignment Issues. This can include the molars not lining up properly which may result in you biting your inner cheeks often while chewing or it may be an overbite or underbite. An excessive overbite may cause your lower front teeth to cause trauma to the tissue on the roof of your mouth making chewing/eating extremely painful. All of these alignment issues will require orthodontic braces to correct the situation. This can also cause nutrition issues as you may have a difficult time chewing food which could lead to nutritional deficiencies.

Thumb Sucking History. A child who is a thumb sucker will likely have issues that need correcting via orthodontic braces. Generally, the upper teeth will flare out following the shape of the thumb.

Orthodontic Braces Evaluation

The American Dental Association statistics show most orthodontic braces treatment occurs between the ages of 8 and 14. Modern orthodontists have learned that sometimes treatment needs to occur in 2 phases. The first phase will make some adjustments while primary teeth are still in place setting up final phase treatment once all the permanent teeth have fully erupted. Orthodontics like dentistry is a very personalized treatment. Every patient will be different in approach and final treatment. It is recommended that most children be evaluated by age 7 to make orthodontic braces treatment easier and more efficient.

Orthodontic Braces Vs Invisalign

In today’s orthodontics, patients have choices. Gone are the days of bulky brackets and braces. Modern orthodontic braces come in many different colors as well as ones that match your teeth. Another advancement is invisalign orthodontic retainers. These clear retainers are made of a smooth, clear plastic. Another advantage to invisalign that they can be removed for dental hygiene as well as for eating (no dietary restrictions).

Do I Need Orthodontic Braces? Conclusion

Orthodontic braces are a wonderful tool for both function and cosmetics. Both kids and adults can enjoy straighter smiles for a lifetime. See your dentist today for an orthodontic braces evaluation.



What Is Botox Cosmetic? Botox cosmetic is a neurotoxin derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. If this toxin sounds familiar you may have heard that it can also cause a serious type of food poisoning called botulism. In medicine with controlled dosing, botox acts by weakening or paralyzing s specific muscle or muscles. They can also block the pathway of certain nerves. Botox is a powerful poison however when used correctly and under right dosage, it has a number of medical applications.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Medical Uses

Botox cosmetic is used in small doses in the medical community for the following conditions:

-In plastic surgery to temporary smooth facial wrinkles. Important to note wrinkles caused by sun damage and gravity will not respond to Botox.

-Control overactive underarm sweating.

-Control cervical dystonia. Cervical dystonia is a neurological disorder which can cause severe shoulder and neck contractions.

-Uncontrolled blining of eyes (bleparospasm).

-Overactive bladder.

-Misaligned eyes. Also called a Strabismus.

-Chronic migraine headaches.

Injected Botox prevents the release of acetylcholine (necessary for contraction of muscles). Botox causes a reduction in abnormal muscle contraction, allowing the muscles to become less rigid.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Procedure

Botox cosmetic is administered using very fine gauge needles directly into the specific neuromuscular tissues necessary. The administration of botox cosmetic generally takes just a few minutes and should not require any local anesthesia. The results are generally noticed about 3-7 days following botox cosmetic treatment.

Botox cosmetic should not be administered to pregnant or lactating women, or by people who have had a previous allergic reaction to Botox cosmetic.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Dentistry

Your dentist can use botox cosmetic for the following issues:

-Ability to smooth and soften crow’s feet, forehead furrows, frown lines, lip lines and bunny lines.

-Reduce neck bands.

-Reduce pain from headache due to tension in muscles in the head, face, and neck.

-Following Orthodontic Treatment completion. – In some patients teeth will relapse and this may be caused by genetic placement of that individual’s musculature. For many patients an over active mentalis muscle is often the cause of relapse of the teeth and may cause spasm of the muscles. Botox cosmetic gives your cosmetic dentist the ability to reduce or remove these spasms and contractions allowing for only a limited relapse following completion of orthodontic treatment.

-Improve the appearance of skin dimpling of the chin.

-Reduce pain from headaches due to occlusal (bite) issues.

-Bruxism reduction.

-Lift the corners of the mouth.

-Soften a jawline that is square.

-Correct a gummy smile due to over retracted upper lips.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Training

A dentist is the perfect practitioner for delivery of botox cosmetic in the head and neck region. A dentist’s training in this area exceeds most medical practitioners but not all. A well trained dentist will give you similar if not better results than a medical doctor due to advanced training. Dentists are also the known specialists in the oral and maxillofacial areas. Dentists are much more knowledgeable than most other medical practitioners in the muscles of mastication and the muscles of facial expression which recieve the botox cosmetic the most. When selecting a dentist for botox cosmetic and look for one that has the proper Botox cosmetic certification and insurance. Botox certification should inlcude at minimum 16 hours of live hands on patient training.

What Is Botox Cosmetic? Before And After

What Is Botox Cosmetic Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDS

What Is Botox Cosmetic Marielaina Perrone DDS

Opting to choose dental implants to replace a lost tooth or teeth can be a difficult decision. Becoming educated on the positive aspects of dental implants can help you choose dental implants in an educated manner. Dental implants when completed by a well trained implant dentist have an over 98% success rate. Below you will find the top 10 reasons to choose dental implants to restore your smile to its natural state and beyond.

Dental implants are the perfect choice for people in overall good dental health who may have lost a single tooth or multiple teeth due to development of periodontal disease, traumatic injury, or just about any other reason. Dental implants are actually more tooth saving than traditional crowns and bridges. If you choose dental implants they will not require shaving  down of healthy adjacent teeth or rely on adjacent teeth for their support.

Choose Dental Implants Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDSSufficient bone is necessary to support the dental implants, and the ideal candidates are those that have healthy periodontal tissues that are free of periodontal disease. Dental implants become connected with the underlying bone and periodontal tissues in the mouth. When you choose dental implants it is necessary to have good dental hygiene for long term success. With dental technique and material advances, dental bone grafts are now more successful than ever and can be used to increase your natural bone allowing dental implants to be an option. Be honest with your implant dentist regarding health issues. Clinical studies have shown an increased risk of failure of dental implants in patients who smoke. Generally dental implants are frequently only placed  after a patient has ceased smoking. If you choose dental implants you want to give yourself the greatest chance for success.

Top Reasons To Choose Dental Implants

1. Restore Your Smile. When you choose dental implants versus other forms of tooth replacement they need to be natural looking in appearance. Any dental restoration should restore and enhance your smile back to its natural state. Dental implants as a stand alone dental restoration or a dental implant supported denture should look and feel natural.

2. Prevent Bone Loss. When you choose dental implants, you are choosing to maintain bone height and density in your mouth. When we lose a tooth or teeth, our bodies natural inclination is to have bone resorb since it is not needed in that area when a tooth is lost. With proper placement of dental implants the body responds by maintaining bone in that area. This will maintain a youthful appearance and reduce wrinkling around the lips and mouth.

3. Increased Durability. Dental implants are extremely durable and highly successful. A well placed dental implant that is cared for should last a lifetime. This point alone should make you choose dental implants over traditional dental restorations.

4. Nutritional Enjoyment. With dental implants, food choice will not be a limiting factor. Once dental implants have healed you will be able to eat anything you want without restrictions based on your teeth. This will also lead to a healthier you as you can eat proper nutrition as necessary. With an implant supported denture, patients are able to eat a wide range of healthy foods that can include all the necessary food groups for improved nutrition and health. Chewy and crunchy foods such as carrots, lettuce and apples which are often avoided by denture wearers can be enjoyed once again when you choose dental implants.

5. Increased Self Confidence and Self Esteem. With a natural restoration and enhancement of your smile, you will immediately feel more confident. This can increase quality of life in many ways including increased job opportunities as well as romantic ones. Increased esteem and confidence will also lead to a healthier outlook on life and increased longevity. Traditional removable dentures can often over time become loose and not fit properly. This can cause the dentures to fall out and not be stable in the mouth. When you choose dental implants in combination with a denture it is fixed in place anchored by the dental implants. Your denture will not be able to fall or become loose. This will lead to increased confidence in work and social aspects of your life.

6. Better Articulated Speech. Since dental implants are fixed in place they will act like your natural teeth allowing you to speak without issue.

7. Impossible To Lose Dental Implants. Unlike a removable denture, dental implants are fixed in place and cannot be lost unless removed by your dentist.

8. Increased Convenience And Comfort. Removable dentures are notorious for causing sore spots inside the mouth. As the bones in the mouth remodel, your dentures will need adjustments and possible relining to fit comfortably again. Dental implants will not cause pain or discomfort. Removable dentures can be very inconvenient since you must remove them  at night as well as for cleaning them. They can also require messy adhesives in some patients. Patients with dental implants will not experience these situations as they will stay in the mouth permanently. Traditional removable dentures over time will often require replacement and repair. Dental implants may have an initial cost that is higher than removable dentures, they do not require a lifetime of costly dental maintenance.

9. No Interruption In Taste. Removable dentures are bulky and can interrupt the taste of our foods. Dental implants do not cover up extensive parts of our mouth allowing us the freedom to enjoy the taste and textures of our favorite food when you choose dental implants.

10. Maintenance. When you choose dental implants, you choose a low maintenance option. You will brush and floss just like your natural teeth. Since they are not removable, you do not need to buy special denture cleaners or denture adhesives. It is important to note that dental implants can be subject to periodontal disease or peri implantitis. So it is important to maintain good dental hygiene.

Top 10 Reasons To Choose Dental Implants Conclusion

When you choose dental implants, it is important to choose wisely. An educated patient is the best patient. Making an informed decision will give you a lifetime of smiles. Any questions ask your implant dentist and they can review all options with you.