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Periodontal disease, comes in two forms gingivitis (reversible) and periodontitis (treatable but non reversible), is an infection of the gums caused by bacteria found in

Periodontal Disease Treatment Marielaina Perrone DDS

Good Oral Health Leads To Good Overall Health!

plaque. Recent studies have shown between 50-75% of people have some form of periodontal disease. More statistics show that approximately 30% of Americans are at an increased risk of developing periodontal disease due to genetic factors. These statistics show how much a health concern periodontal disease can be especially when you add in even more research showing periodontal disease links with systemic diseases.

Factors in Development of Periodontal Disease

-Poor Oral Hygiene.

Tobacco Use.


-Teeth Grinding or Bruxism.


-Poor Immune System

-Systemic disease.

The earliest and mildest stage of gum disease is gingivitis, where the gums redden and bleed easily. If not treated, inflammation of the tissue occurs, resulting in progression of  the disease to periodontitis. Gingivitis is characterized by receding gums, loose teeth, sores, sensitive gums, swollen gums, red or discolored gums, chronic bad breath, change in teeth alignment and teeth movement. The ultimate consequence of advanced periodontal disease is loss of teeth, which occurs when the tissue and bone supporting the tooth breaks down.

Periodontal disease was previously thought to affect only the teeth and gums, but researchers have discovered that periodontal disease influences the overall health and well-being of an individual. Research has shown that gum disease is a risk factor for many health conditions throughout the body. The gum disease causing bacteria that normally resides around the teeth can enter the blood stream and reach other organs and tissues in the body. Once there, the bacteria  release disease-causing agents that can lead to chronic inflammatory conditions that can include:

Diabetes Mellitus (or simply Diabetes)

Periodontal disease impairs the body’s ability to maintain blood sugar levels making you more prone to diabetes or making diabetic symptoms worse. On the other hand, diabetic patients are more likely to suffer from periodontal disease due to a weakened immune system, making it easier for them to catch infections, viruses, and exhibit delayed wound healing.


According to scientific studies, gum disease increases the risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. A chronic infection of the gums can be directly related to an increased risk of reduced blood flow to the brain. Stroke and gum disease have similar risk factors and severe inflammation from periodontal disease increases the risks of having a stroke.

Las Vegas Cosmetic Dentist Marielaina Perrone DDSHeart Disease

Having periodontal disease puts you at higher risks of heart disease. Just like periodontal disease, heart disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which can be greatly impacted by periodontal disease. The more severe the periodontal infection, the higher the risk of developing heart conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and acute coronary syndrome.

Respiratory Infections

When the bacteria in the plaque that causes gum disease goes to the lungs, it can cause respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. This explains the increased cases of pneumonia and other respiratory conditions in people with periodontal disease. This also is in conjunction with patients with lowered immune systems which makes it easier for them to be susceptible to these bacterial attacks.


After considering risk factors for cancer including age, diabetes, smoking, BMI and more, experts found periodontal disease as a risk factor for lung, kidney, pancreatic, head, neck and hematologic cancers. Inflammation caused by periodontal disease is a major contributing factor to these cancers.

Bad Breath (Halitosis)

Periodontal disease can result in chronic bad breath which is more of a social issue than a medical one. Bacteria deposits on the tongue can also cause bad breath. This is one of the few conditions caused by periodontal disease that can be treated at home by practicing proper dental care to control halitosis (brushing, flossing, mouthrinses, tongue scraping).

Complications with Birth and Pregnancy

Periodontal disease in pregnant mothers has been shown to increase the risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. The  periodontal bacteria involved cause inflammation of the uterus and cervix. Periodontal disease also increases the risk of developing preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure and excess protein.

Las Vegas Cosmetic Dentist Marielaina Perrone DDS

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a painful chronic inflammatory disease that affects the joints. The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease goes both ways as each increases inflammation in the other. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are faced with increased risks and severity of periodontal disease and treating periodontal disease can relieve some of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.


The best and easiest way to prevent and control periodontal disease is by maintaining a good oral hygiene program which includes regular dental visits as well as diligent at home care. This includes brushing, flossing, use of mouth rinse, and tongue scraping. Your health is important, taking care of your dental health is a great way to start taking care of your overall health.

Periodontal diseaseis an infection of the gums, attachments and bone that surround and support the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums can become swollen and red, and they may bleed. In its more serious form (called periodontitis) the gums can pull away from the tooth and bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or even fall out. Periodontal disease is mostly seen in adults. Periodontal disease and tooth decay are the two biggest threats to dental health.

What is MyPerioPath?
What does it have to do with Periodontal Disease?

MyPerioPath is a diagnostic tool that identifies the type of bacteria and the concentration of the bacteria present in the saliva.  Dentists and researchers have long known the specific bacteria known to cause periodontal disease so this tool gives us an idea of where each patient is and how to treat them. This makes periodontal disease treatment more personalized and allows for more predictable outcomes.

Bacteria Associated with Periodontal Disease

Researchers have discovered over 350 different species of microorganisms in the typical person’s healthy mouth. Less than 5% of these microorganism species are linked to periodontal diseaseinfections. Research

MyPerioPath Marielaina Perrone DDS

MyPerioPath Kit for Periodontal Disease Treatment

has also shown that these ” bad bacteria”, can be shared with your partner. So, if you , or your partner has progressive periodontal disease, you may both need to be checked and or treated with antibiotics.

Healthy and disease causing bacteria are usually grouped into two distinct categories:

1) Gram positive aerobic bacteria. These are harmless or helpful bacteria in the mouth.

2) Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. These are bacteria related to periodontal disease. When periodontal disease develops, the bacterial balance shifts over to these types of bacteria. Inflammation and injury cannot develop without these bacteria flourishing in the mouth.

Some of the bacteria most implicated in periodontal disease and bone loss include:

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. These two bacteria appear to be particularly likely to cause aggressive periodontal disease. Both P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, along with multiple deep pockets in the gum, are associated with resistance to standard treatments for gum disease. P. gingivalis may double the risk for serious gum disease. P. gingivalis produces enzymes, such as one called arginine-specific cysteine proteinase, that may disrupt the immune system and lead to subsequent periodontal connective tissue destruction.

Bacteroides forsythus is also strongly linked to periodontal disease.

Other bacteria associated with periodontal disease are Treponema denticola, T. socranskii, and P. intermedia. These bacteria, together with P. gingivalis, are frequently present at the same sites, and are associated with deep periodontal pockets.

Some bacteria are related to gingivitis, but not plaque development. They include various streptococcal species.

How does MyPerioPath help personalize Periodontal Disease Treatment?

By knowing the exact bacteria and concentrations of each we are able to set up a treatment plan aimed at those specific bacteria. This can include the following treatment:

MyPerioPath Marielaina Perrone DDS

MyPerioPath Sample Results

Oral hygiene Instruction. Any dental treatment is doomed to fail without oral hygiene maintenance at home. Periodontal disease is progressive and will get worse without proper treatment and maintenance.

Scaling and Root Planing. This treatment is also referred to as a deep cleaning. The goal of initial periodontal disease treatment is to remove the plaque and tartar buildup as well as to disinfect the mouth to lower the progress of periodontal disease. The removal of deep plaque and tartar, and smoothing of the root surface allows for healing and reattachment. This leads to healing and hopefully, reduced pocket depth.

Periogen. Oral rinse for dissolving tartar buildup between professional cleanings. This oral rinse can lower the inflammatory process by removing some of the tartar and bacterial buildup in the mouth.

Antibiotics. The test really shines in allowing the dentist to tailor a specific antibiotic regimen for each patient. The antibiotic used may be different for each patient depending on their bacteria types and levels. The antibiotic treatment will allow the bacteria levels to decrease dramatically thus halting the progress of the periodontal disease.

Other Tests Available for Periodontal Disease

There is another test available for testing periodontal disease called MyPerioID PST. Salivary DNA test that determines increased risk for severe periodontal infections. The MyPerioID PST test identifies individual genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease and allows the dentist to establish which patients are at increased risk for more severe periodontal infections due to an exaggerated immune response.

MyPerioPath Conclusion

Is this periodontal disease test necessary for everyone? Probably not. It does come at a cost so it should only be utilized where necessary. For some patients, normal periodontal disease treatment is not enough and this test could help stave off periodontal disease progression and aide in more successful healing. Keeping regular dental visits as well as regular professional cleanings coupled with a good oral hygiene regimen at home is the perfect recipe for staving off periodontal disease.