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Dental bonding is a common cosmetic dentistry procedure that can make minimal and maximum changes to your smile. The beauty of dental bonding is it generally can be completed in a single dental appointment and may or may not need dental anesthesia and is far less expensive than porcelain restorations. . This cosmetic dentistry procedure involves reshaping and blending teeth. Bonding utilizes tooth colored materials that can be bonded to teeth to change shape, color, and length. This same material can also be used to fully cover the front surface (called a composite veneer). 

Dental Bonding Procedure

Dental bonding can be used to restore function to a tooth that has tooth decay or just to add a cosmetic change. What is involved in the dental bonding procedure?

-Preparation. Very little preparation is necessary for dental bonding, especially in the case of a chipped tooth. Anesthesia is usually not even needed unless the dental bonding is needed to restore a deeply damaged or traumatized tooth, a fracture close to the nerve, a sensitive tooth, or a tooth damaged by a tooth decay. Your dentist will need to roughen up the surface and clean the edges to prepare the area to accept the dental bonding.

-An acidic etching gel (phosphoric acid) is applied to the tooth being treated to ready the surface for bonding of the dental composite. The gel opens up microscopic tubules which allows for proper bonding to the natural tooth surface.

-A liquid conditioning agent is applied to the tooth which wets the surface and again facilitates bonding.

-Your dentist will then choose the proper shade of dental composite to match the tooth being worked on but also the surrounding teeth.

-The dental composite is then formed and shaped so that it will fit into the necessary treatment area can restore the natural contours and function of the tooth. Multiple layers of dental composite are applied. This allows for a stronger end product.

-A special UV light is held over the dental composite. This light hardens and cures the dental composite. Each layer will be cured within seconds.

-After the material has cured, your dentist will adjust the material to remove any excess and bring it to a high polish. This will also be the time your dentist will ensure the bite (or occlusion) is correct. Adjustments may be made to bring the teeth into proper alignment. The final shaping and polishing is one of the most important parts of the process. It is important to blend the composite resin properly to get a result that looks and feels like your natural tooth structure.

-The entire dental bonding procedure usually between 30 minutes to an hour for each tooth. If done properly, dental bonding should not be noticeable to anyone. It should match your existing tooth structure perfectly.

-Going forward to maintain the dental bonding, you will want to be diligent about your dental hygiene. This should include brushing and flossing regularly.

What Can Dental Bonding Do For You?

Dental bonding is a popular cosmetic dentistry procedure, but can also be used to restore teeth that have tooth decay. Dental bonding can do the following:

-Repair cracks or chips in teeth.

Close gaps in between teeth.

-Cover stains or discolorations.

-Cover exposed roots thus eliminating or decreasing tooth sensitivity.

-Change length or shape of teeth.

Dental Bonding Conclusion

A dentist has many tools to restore your teeth but none more important than dental bonding. It is a versatile cosmetic dentistry procedure that can restore your smile to its natural form and function.


Tooth decay is a slow, destructive process. In its earliest stages, a decayed tooth, is easily treatable. If left untreated it will lead to dental infection and tooth loss. The best defense against tooth decay is good oral hygiene along with regular dental visits. These routine dental visits will give your dentist the ability to detect tooth decay in its earliest stages.

Signs Of Tooth Decay

Pain/Discomfort. Having any kind of oral or tooth pain is not normal. It is usually a sign that something is wrong.

Tooth SensitivityThis can be due to a variety of things but it is important to note the type of sensitivity present. Is it sensitive to hot temperatures, cold temperatures, or both? Is it sensitive to sugary foods? Is it sensitive to acidic foods? If the tooth or teeth are sensitive to most or all of the questions posed than it is cause for concern.

-Persistent Bad Breath (Halitosis). Bad breath can be caused by many things like the foods we eat, periodontal disease, and systemic disease (like diabetes). Tooth decay can also present itself with a persistent malodor due to the bacteria present in tooth decay.

Tooth Decay Treatment

Treatment of tooth decay usually takes two routes. One is when it is detected early enough to see if it will reverse itself through remineralization and the other is restoring the tooth to its natural form and function.

-Remineralization. Very shallow cavities in our teeth can sometimes fix themselves with a little help. These cavities must only be in the outer layer of our teeth (enamel). Once it passes theough this layer the tooth decay will not reverse itself. The repair process is known as remineralization. Application of fluoride to the teeth can reverse the process of early tooth decay. This is usually done using a fluoride supplement or through application at a dental office. Fluoride can be harmful at high levels so it is important to follow your dentist’s advice.

-Dental Restoration. Once the tooth decay enters the underlying layers of a tooth it is time for a dental restoration to restore the form and function of the teeth. Restorations can include dental amalgam, dental bonding, and dental crowns. Dental crowns (can be porcelain or gold) are necessary when the tooth decay is extensive.

Root Canal Therapy. This treatment will be necessary if the tooth decay has entered the “nerve center” of the tooth. This allows the dentist to save the tooth preserving it for future use. Once a tooth receives a root canal it is generally recommended that a dental crown be placed.

Tooth Extraction. If a patient decides to forego root canal therapy or the decay is so extensive that it is not able to be restored, the only option is to remove the tooth (or what is left of that tooth). This is usually a last resort option.

Tooth Decay Conclusion

It is important to remember that tooth decay is preventable and even if it does arise it can be treated with minimal care. The key is early diagnosis. The only way to diagnose tooth decay early is through regular dental examinations and routine radiographs. At the first sign of tooth decay call your dentist to evaluate the situation.



For many adults, braces or orthodontics have just not been an option. They do not want to invest the time and effort to make their teeth straight. For those that do want to correct their occlusion,  it is a worthwhile investment. Orthodontics is a great way to fix bite issues as well as some cosmetic issues. However, if you do not have any bite issues and are looking for a fresh start with a new smile, instant orthodontics may be the answer for you.

How Does Instant Orthodontics Work?

Instant orthodontics is achieved using multiple cosmetic dentistry procedures in a fairly short time to give you the white, bright, straight smile you desire. Depending upon how extreme your smile issues are to begin with, instant orthodontics can range from 2-3 visits to 2-3x times that number. Let’s take a look at some of the cosmetic dentistry procedures involved in instant orthodontics:

Porcelain Veneers. This is a hallmark procedure in cosmetic dentistry for an instant orthodontics case. Porcelain veneers are a custom made thin shell of porcelain that is bonded to the existing teeth (after a small amount of preparation to the teeth). Once in place you have a long lasting durable dental restoration that can change color, shape, and size of your teeth. These are generally used on the top front teeth and  sometimes, bottom front teeth. Porcelain veneers work best in cases where minor changes need to be made in alignment, shape and color of teeth. Preliminary models of the teeth should be made to assess whether veneers can correct issues properly. If after diagnostic workup, it is found that the issues are too severe, a different method of correction will be necessary. So, porcelain veneers are ideal in cases where there is a limited amount of misalignment of teeth and/or the patient’s desire is to not only bring them back in line but also to change the color and shape of their teeth.

Porcelain and Zirconia Crowns. These types of crowns are the most cosmetic offered in dentistry today. They are made from modern dental porcelains that range in strength and esthetics. If done properly, no one should ever be able to tell a porcelain crown from natural tooth. Modern porcelains possesses strength, color properties, and light reflection properties that very closely mimic our natural teeth. Porcelain crowns can be used to change bite alignment issues as well as change alignment of front teeth which are more extreme such as those issues that porcelain veneers alone cannot fix. More natural tooth structure needs to be removed in preparing a porcelain crown vs a porcelain veneer.

Dental Bonding. This cosmetic dentistry procedure can be useful when closing a gap between teeth, changing a surface imperfection, or altering tooth shape. Dental bonding is much less expensive in the short term, but can change color,(stain), and chip requiring frequent replacement. Porcelain crowns or porcelain veneers do not change color and are more resistant to fracture. That said, dental bonding does a great job in closing gaps on teeth as well as changing the size, shape and color of one or more teeth much in the same circumstances diagnostically as veneers.

Why Choose Instant Orthodontics Over Traditional Orthodontics?

While traditional orthodontics has a necessary and important place in dentistry. Traditional orthodontic movement of teeth into correct anatomical position is the generally the more conservative approach due to the fact that the teeth do not require alteration to their anatomy. Many adult patients choose instant orthodontics over traditional orthodontics for the following reasons:

Time. Traditional orthodontics can take a year or longer to achieve the results you are looking for. Orthodontics will not whiten teeth or change color or tooth shape.

Periodontal disease. This needs to be under control prior to any type of dental work of this magnitude. Traditional orthodontics can make a situation where there is bone loss present even worse as the teeth move. Teeth moving into place may cause increased bone loss, tooth looseness, root resorption, and gum tissue recession.

Tooth Decay/Old restorations present. When there is tooth decay present or an older dental restoration (such as a crown or previous dental bonding) that needs replacing, it may actually be easier and more cost efficient for the patient to get new dental restorations and re align the teeth in that manner.

Bite Reclamation. Over time, our teeth wear (this is especially true for those who grind their teeth). This wear can cause a loss in what is called vertical dimension, collapsing our bites. A good cosmetic dentist can not only make your new restorations look perfect but they can also add the extra function of restoring that lost vertical height. This will give the effect of smoothing out the skin and wrinkles around the mouth thus giving you a more youthful appearance. Instant orthodontics can not fix loss of tooth structure.

Instant Orthodontics Conclusion

Instant orthodontics is not for everyone. For those who are unhappy with their smile and looking for more than just teeth whitening it could be just the answer for their needs. If traditional orthodontics is not feasible for you, instant orthodontics may be a great option. You can expect your smile to look great in just a few weeks,  but be aware, over time some of those restorations may need to be redone if they break or tooth decay becomes an issue. Remember, dental hygiene is the foundation of any cosmetic dentistry work. If you wish any restoration to last, you must brush, floss, rinse, and see your dentist regularly for examinations and professional cleanings.




We, as a society have become more acutely aware of the ingredients in many products used for our health and even for our environment. This includes food, medications, and children’s products. Now we

Cosmetic Dentist Marielaina Perrone DDS

Educate Yourself On The Hazards Of Mercury, BPA, and Triclosan.

can include dental materials to the list. Controversies have developed recently surrounding the use of Bisphenol-A (commonly referred to as BPA) as well as mercury use in dentistry. What are the truths regarding dental materials and what can you do to keep you and your family safe and healthy at the dentist 89014?

Controversial Dental Materials

Mercury – This has long been used to restore tooth decay in something called a dental amalgam. A dental amalgam is a metal based restorative dental material that is a mixture of liquid mercury and a powdered alloy (composed of silver, tin, and copper). A dental amalgam is the cheapest of all dental materials used for restoring tooth decay and was developed over 150 years ago. While controversial in it’s use, It has been and will continue to be utilized around the world as an economical choice in dental restoration.

The controversy that surrounds dental amalgam is the incorporation of mercury. There are some who are allergic to dental amalgams. This allergy could be due to the mercury or one of the other components. The main concern is the inhalation of mercury vapors into the lungs. The NIH, and FDA have been conducting and comparing dental mercury research for quite some time. The general rule of thumb for mercury exposure is, low levels have no statistically significant or reproducible harmful effects whereas much higher levels can cause issues like, fatigue, memory loss, irritability, and headaches. Most research addresses levels released in the mouth following placement. Studies have concluded that, as these dental amalgams wear in the mouth, mercury is released mainly while chewing. While the research concluded that the level of mercury release was low, it can still be a cause for concern for many patients.

The FDA has released a final study on this stating that, “the levels released by dental amalgam restorations are not high enough to cause harm in patients.” The bottom line for the use of dental amalgam should be a dental materials choice between patient and dentist. It is an effective dental material (both in cost and function) and will continue to be an option for most dental offices in the near future.

Triclosan – This ingredient is found in many everyday products including soap, toothpaste, and many mouthwashes. It’s main use is to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination.  Since its main use is as an anti-bacterial, many wonder if its overuse in soaps and mouthwashes will cause new bacterial strains to develop that are able to resist triclosan’s effects. Other concerns are its effect on our immune and muscular systems. There have been small studies done that have shown an increased incidence of hay fever and allergies in general from over exposure to anti bacterial soaps.

The jury is still out on triclosan as the FDA has not given it a full vote of confidence. It has approved it for use in toothpastes as an effective aid in preventing the development of gingivitis. As of this writing, triclosan has not been determined to harm humans but studies are ongoing.

Dental Materials Marielaina Perrone DDS

Make Informed Decisions on Mercury, BPA, and Triclosan For Your Entire Family.

Bisphenol-A (BPA) – BPA is used in a variety of products mainly for the use in production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy type resins. Commonly household items include water bottles, baby bottles, and even compact discs. BPA is also found in many dental materials including dental sealants and dental composites.

The controversy surrounding BPA is the fact that BPA has been characterized as an endocrine disruptor. Studies have linked BPA to numerous diseases in humans including heart disease, diabetes, and fertility issues. One study followed almost 1,500 adult patients in the U.S. and associated higher levels of BPA in the urine to lead to a greater probability of being diagnosed with heart disease, diabetes, and liver enzyme abnormalities. Another concern is the effect it has on children, as dental sealants are predominantly placed on children. The jury is still out as there has been no definitive relationship to this point.  Ask your dentist if they know if they are BPA free?

Dental Materials Conclusion

There is continuing research looking into the effects of BPA use by the FDA. Nothing definitive has been stated yet but ask your dentist regarding products they use. Many dental companies in response have developed “BPA free” alternatives. Many products claim to be BPA free because they do not technically add BPA. However, all sealants and composite resins have Bis-GMA and/or Bis-DMA which are made from BPA and release BPA into the mouth as a by-product. Bis-DMA releases far more BPA, and some brands of composite or sealant release substantially higher amounts of BPA at normal ph levels.

There is countless information available on all of these products. The internet is full of truths and lies. It is important to look at these ingredients, and research studies objectively and make the right choices for you and your family. If there are any concerns about any dental materials, ask your dentist for more information to make an educated choice. An educated patient is an empowered patient who can make informed choices about their dental care.