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Periodontal disease is a progressive condition that should be treated immediately. Below you will find some common questions patients ask about periodontal disease.

What Is Periodontal Disease?

Periodontal disease is classified as an infection of the soft and hard tissues supporting your teeth. Periodontal disease is caused when plaque begins to build up on the teeth and eventually hardens (also known as tartar). In the initial stages of periodontal disease, the gum tissues become inflamed and there may be some bleeding upon brushing and flossing. This initial stage of periodontal disease is known as gingivitis. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment from your dentist and maintaining a regimented routine of at home dental hygiene. If gingivitis is left untreated, the disease can continue to progress. The next stage is known as periodontitis. In this stage of periodontal disease the plaque and tartar build up below the gumline. Continued irritation and inflammation of the gums occur, this response will create periodontal pockets (increased space between your teeth and gums) that become infected. As periodontitis progresses and worsens, the periodontal pockets get deeper and the bone that supports the teeth begins to be lost. If periodontitis is left untreated, it will eventually lead to loss of teeth.

Periodontal Disease Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDSHow Is Periodontal Disease Diagnosed?

During your dental visits, your dentist or hygienist will examine the tissues surrounding your teeth visually, using instruments, and thru radiographs. If inflammation is present or the gums bleed easily that will be the first sign of periodontal disease being present. Further examination will occur using an instrument called a periodontal probe. This probe can measure the bone height surrounding your teeth. Normal periodontal pocketing is around 3mm. As bone loss and inflammation occurs this number can rise dramatically. Generally a pocket depth above 4 mm along with bleeding is a hallmark sign of the presence of periodontal disease.

What Are Common Signs Of Periodontal Disease?

Unfortunately for many, periodontal disease can be a silent disease until it becomes quite advanced. Signs and symptoms of periodontal disease include the following

-Inflamed or tender gums that are red in color.

-Bleeding upon brushing, flossing, or when consuming harder to chew foods.

-Teeth appear longer due to receding gum tissues.

-Loose or moving teeth.

-Development of a dental infection in the gum tissues. Usually presents itself as a pimple. Can also be a sign of an infection related to a bad tooth.

-Sores in the mouth

-Unexplained, chronic bad breath

-A change in the way your teeth fit together when you bring them together.

What Are Typical Periodontal Disease Treatments?

Depending on severity of periodontal disease, your dentist may refer you to a periodontist. A periodontist is a dentist that specializes in the gum and bone tissues of the mouth surrounding your teeth. There are a few options available. These include:

1. Scaling And Root Planing (also referred to as a deep cleaning). This dental hygiene cleaning will include the normal removal of plaque and tartar but will also smooth the root surfaces that are exposed or just below the gum line. This will help rid the oral bacteria that contribute to the development and progression of periodontal disease.

2. Periodontal Flap Surgery. This type of surgery opens the gum tissues up giving the dentist greater access to teeth, gum tissues, and bone. They can then debride the areas fully along with planing of roots. The tissues will be replaced and allowed to heal. Your dentist may decide a dental bone graft or gingival tissue graft may be necessary as well. A bone graft will help restore some missing bone to give added support in hopes of saving the affected teeth. A gingival tissue graft will help cover exposed roots to decrease sensitivity as well as give a better cosmetic result following surgery.

What Follows Treatment Of Periodontal Disease?

You will be placed on a maintenance therapy program. This will include oral hygiene instructions for at home along with necessary tools and education. It will also include the possibility of more frequent visits to the dental hygienist for follow up visits to keep the disease state under control. Some patients will require a more frequent schedule. The normal is every 6 months but for many cases it can increase to every 3 months to keep the disease from progressing further.

Can Periodontal Disease Contribute To General Health Issues?

Clinical studies have given us lots of data that periodontal disease does in fact affect our general health. These issues include:

-Alzheimer’s Disease

-Cardiovascular Issues (Heart attack or stroke). Both periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease are considered chronic inflammatory diseases. The medical community believes that inflammation is probably the factor that associates the two disease states.

-Low Birth Weight Babies and PreTerm Pregnancies

-Difficulty in Controlling Diabetes

Can Children Develop Periodontal Disease?

It is rare to find periodontal disease in children but it is possible. More so for adolescents and teenagers. This does not mean we should not educate our children on the importance of dental hygiene. Children should be educated and develop a routine to avoid any issues as they get older. The warning signs of periodontal disease include swollen, bleeding gums that are red in color. If your child has these symptoms call your dentist to ensure he/she is cared for swiftly.

What Can Be Done At Home To Prevent Periodontal Disease?

The #1 way to prevent development of periodontal disease is visit your dentist regularly and maintain a diligent schedule of dental hygiene at home. This should include brushing at least 2x per day (recommend after every meal), flossing at least once a day, and using an antibacterial mouth rinse.

Is Periodontal Disease Contagious?

The actual periodontal disease state is not contagious since it is an inflammatory process. However, the bacteria that causes periodontal disease can be spread thru saliva. This is most often common from mother or father to newborn baby prior to full development of immune system. It has also been shown to have a genetic component. It is believed that approximately 30% of the world’s population may have some genetic susceptibility to the development of periodontal disease. Modern DNA testing can shed some light on these factors as well. Once such company is called OralDNAMyPerioPath is used to test for the detection of oral pathogens that cause periodontal disease. MyPerioPath can help provide early detection of oral pathogens to enable the personalized care in treatment of periodontal disease.

Can I Wait To Get Periodontal Disease Treatment?

The earlier that periodontal disease can be treated the cheaper and easier it will be to manage the outcomes. At the earliest sign of periodontal disease see your dentist and it could just involve a professional cleaning and some dental hygiene instructions. If you wait it could progress to periodontal flap surgery and tooth loss.

What Are The Stages Of Periodontal Disease?

The stages of periodontal disease are as follows:

-Gingivitis

-Periodontitis

-Advanced Periodontitis




The different dental implants types are a safe and effective way to replace lost or missing teeth. The success rate for well planned dental implants is well over 98%. Dental implants are an artificial tooth root (generally fabricated out of titanium metal) that a periodontist or oral surgeon inserts into your jaw bone to support a dental restoration to replace a single tooth or multiple teeth. Did you know there are different dental implants types available? There are many different scenarios where the various dental implants types are needed so dentists have developed many different dental implants types to offer to patients.

The various dental implants types are the ideal solution for people in overall good dental health who have lost a tooth or teeth due to periodontal disease, injury, or any other reason. The various dental implants types are actually more conservative dentally than traditional dental crowns and dental bridges. This is because the different dental implants types do not have the need to cut down healthy teeth or rely upon adjacent teeth for support.

Dental Implants Vs Bridge Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDS Different Dental Implants Types Las Vegas Marielaina Perrone DDS

Sufficient bone is needed to support the various dental implants types, and the best candidates have healthy periodontal tissues that are periodontal disease free. Dental implants are intimately connected with the underlying bone and gum tissues in the mouth. Good dental hygiene is necessary for long term success of dental implants. With dental technique and dental material advancements, dental bone grafts are now more successful than ever and can be used to augment your natural bone. Be honest with your dentist regarding health issues. There is a marked increased risk of failure in patients who smoke. For this reason, dental implants are frequently placed only after a patient has stopped smoking for a period of time.

Different Dental Implants Types

-Two Stage Dental Implants. This is the most commonly used dental implants types used by dentists today. This type of dental implant is placed directly in the bone just below the gum line. The implant is closed over by the gum tissues while it is healing. Following healing, the implant is uncovered and a final dental implants crown is placed to restore a lost tooth.

-Single-Stage Dental Implants. This dental implants method does not cover the dental implant with gum tissue following surgery. This technique is not commonly used.

-Immediate Load Dental Implants. This dental implants type is one where a dental implant and a dental crown are placed on the same day. This can be very tricky as conditions must be ideal including sufficient bone volume/density being present for success.

-All On 4 Dental Implants. This is a fairly new dental implants types that can help many patients replace missing teeth. The All on 4 Dental Implants procedure uses four dental implants per arch (either upper or lower or can be completed on both arches).  The dental implants in the back of the mouth are placed on an angle to take maximum advantage of the existing bone structure. A special dental implants type was developed and refined that could support the immediate loading and fitting of replacement teeth. This treatment is attractive to those with loose dentures or those in need of full upper and/or lower dental restorations. With the All-on-4 dental implants procedure, patients receive just four dental implants and a full set of new upper or lower replacement teeth in just one appointment. This is generally able to be completed without the need for dental bone grafts.  The real attractionfor patients for the all on 4 dental implants procedure is how quickly permanent dental implants and dental restorations can be placed. This allows patients the ability to leave the same day with a denture that is anchored and stabilized by these specific all on 4 dental implants types.

Historically, the dentist’s approach to restoring a full arch of teeth usually involved dental bone grafts, six or more dental implants, and as much as 18 months of dental treatment. In that time, the patient would be wearing an interim denture while the dental bone grafts and dental implants heal and integrate into the bone. This can be very expensive, time consuming, and uncomfortable for a patient to continuously go back for dental treatment.

Which Dental Implants Types Are Best?

Luckily, with different dental implants types we have options for different patients. Each patient is unique and dentistry should never be one size fits all. Dentistry and especially implant dentistry is highly personalized. Dental implants types are a constantly evolving section of implant dentistry. As time advances, new dental implants types will be developed with different materials and techniques. Speak to your implant dentist today to see which dental implants types is right for your smile.

Reasons To Say Yes To Different Dental Implants Types

-Esthetics. Once restored no one should ever know but you and your dentist that you have dental implants.

-Functional Stability. Once healed, your dental implants will function and feel just like your natural teeth. You will be able to eat and drink anything you want.

-Maintain Oral Health. The various dental implants types help to maintain optimum bone levels of the jaws. This will allow your face to maintain its natural bone structure as long as possible giving you a more youthful appearance.

-No Worries. Dental implants are stable so you won’t have to worry about them falling out, rocking, or not feeling stable enough to eat what you want. Although dental implants can have complications, they are few and far between. You will never need a root canal on a dental implant nor will you ever get tooth decay.

-Longevity Success. Dental implants have an over 98% success rate and should (with proper dental maintenance care) last a lifetime.

-Financial Cost. While the cost may seem high, it is important to note how much goes into the different dental implants types. A dental implant should last a lifetime and should be considered over traditional dental treatments like a dental bridge for that reason.

Different Dental Implants Types Conclusion

The various different dental implants types mentioned above only add to the options you have to restore lost teeth. Speak to your implant dentist today to see what dental implants option is best for you long term.

 




Orthodontics for adults is a relatively new phenomenon. The old way of thinking that orthodontic braces were just for children has been tossed out the window. Orthodontics for adults is a booming segment of dentistry. With new advancements in dental materials and techniques orthodontics for adults has become easier than ever.

Is Orthodontics For Adults For Everyone?

According to the Amercian Association of Orthodontists, approximately one in four orthodontic patients (about 1.7 million between Canada and USA) is an adult(anyone over age 18). As dental knowledge has advanced we have realized that leaving crooked teeth and misaligned teeth was not just a cosmetic issue. This crowding leads to increased risk of tooth decay and periodontal disease as well as difficulty in chewing and speech. Orthodontics for adults can fix that creating a smile that is in harmony not only esthetically but functionally. This will lead to being able to maintain dental hygiene easier which will lead to longer tooth life.

Is There An Age Limit For Orthodontics For Adults?

No! You are never to old to receive orthodontic treatment. There are a ton of factors that your dentist or orthodontist will consider but age is usually not one of them.

Is Orthodontics For Adults Possible With Missing Teeth?

It all depends on what is missing and where. The beauty of orthodontics for adults is that this is where a dentist and an orthodontist will come together and work as a team creating the perfect smile for you. Your treatment plan may include a mix of orthodontic treatment as well as a dental implant or two to complete your smile.

Orthodontics For Adults Vs Adolescent Orthodontics

The process of moving teeth is exactly the same whether you are 6 or 60. Orthodontics moves teeth by placing directional force on our teeth over time. Many issues can be corrected as an Marielaina Perrone DDS Orthodontics For Adults Henderson NVadult as easily as for a child. The biggest difference between children’s orthodontics and orthodontics for adults is that adults have stopped growing. This can cause an increase in orthodontic treatment time for adults. Adult bone will be denser as well which will make tooth movement slower. Also considerations need to be made if the adult patient has any dental crowns. These can be moved but care must be taken to ensure these teeth are healthy and the dental crown is properly placed. Adults and children can have very similar orthodontic issues. These can include:

-Crowding or too much space between teeth

-Overbites or Underbites. For an open bite, the front teeth may not make contact when the back teeth touch, or vice versa. Poorly aligned teeth and jaws can, over time, can result in abnormal wearing of tooth surfaces.

Orthodontics For Adults Initial Treatment

Your initial consultaion will usually be a no cost consultation. In addition to the consultation x rays and photographs will be taken. There may be a charge for these. These x rays and photographs will help the dentist and orthodontist map out your treatment safely. At your initial consultation you will discuss with dentist or orthodontist why you are there. They will examine you and look at the following factors to develop a customized treatment plan for you.

-What is the orthodontic issue that brings you in?

-Multiple orthodontic options to correct the problem or problems.

-Customized treatment goals that you wish to achieve.

-Will any teeth need to be removed to accomplish these goals?

-Whether other dental services are required prior to orthodontic treatment to bring your dental health to optimal levels.

-A rough estimate on the length of your orthodontic treatment

-Estimated cost of orthodontics for adults care.

Orthodontics For Adults Treatment

As mentioned previously, teeth are moved with controlled directional forces over time. Orthodontists use clear aligners (invisalign) or braces to guide and move your teeth into their ideal positions. The tooth movement occurs as the underlying bone is broken down and then rebuilt. If the process goes too fast the bone does not recover properly. Timing is critical for long term health. Following orthodontic treatment, you can expect to wear a retainer to maintain the movements you have gained while undergoing active orthodontic treatment.

Braces Or Clear Aligners? Which is Fastest?

Your orthodontist will decide with you which option is best for your individual smile. Patience is needed for adult orthodontics as it is for adolescents.

Follow these tips to make orthodontics for adults treatment go as easily as possible:

-Maintain a diligent brushing and flossing regimen.

-Maintain routine dental visits for professional cleanings as recommended.

-Monitor foods you eat. Try to avoid hard, sticky, and crunchy foods. It is best to choose foods that are soft and easier to chew.

-Avoid sugary drinks.

-Follow all orthodontic instructions.

-Maintain regular scheduled orthodontic appointments. If any issues arise do not hesitate to call.

Orthodontics For Adults Conclusion

Orthodontics for adults has transformed many smiles. With a clear understanding of the treatment, orthodontics for adults can work wonders on any smile. Speak to your dentist today if you are having thoughts about orthodontic treatment.






Botox cosmetic has been used by plastic surgeons for years for cosmetic reasons. Dentists more recently have been using Botox for similar reasons but also as additional therapies. These therapies can now include therapy for Temperomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJ). Botox can be used to treat tension in the jaws, headaches from bruxism (teeth grinding), and even possibly lockjaw in severe scenarios.

Botox For TMJ

Botox for TMJ has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as treatment for temperomandibular joint disorders (TMJ). However, Botox has been approved by the FDA for painful conditions such as migraines. Migraines are potentially related to TMJ disorder. Clinical trials published so far have been small and have produce inconsistent findings. A 2012 study found that Botox could significantly decrease pain and increase mouth movements for three months following treatment. However, this was an extremely small study that had under 30 participants. Similar studies have been completed which showed significant results as well. To date there has not been a large enough study to definitively tell if botox for TMJ is the answer to TMJ disorders. Other studies include one 2016 study published in the Journal of Headache and Pain found that TMJ patients who had Botox for TMJ treatments experienced a reduction in pain and headaches, which led to requiring fewer painkilling drugs. In 2003, a clinical study from the University of Bonn discovered that approximately 90% of all study participants who had not responded favorably to conventional TMJ treatments saw significant improvements after using Botox for TMJ to address their TMJ related pain symptoms.

TMJ Disorders

Botox For TMJ Henderson NV Marielaina Perrone DDSThe temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the area right in front of the ear on either side of the face where the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible) meet. Muscles attached to and surrounding the temperomandibular joint control the position and movement of the jaw. This joint is a very unique sliding “ball and socket” that has a disc sandwiched between it, it is the only joint in the body which can move in all directions. The temporomandibular joint functions to move the jaw, especially in biting and chewing, talking, and yawning. It is one of the most used joints in the body.

The temporomandibular joints are a very complex system and are made up of muscles, tendons, a disc and bones. You have a temperomandibular joint on each side of your jaw (right and left side). Each individual part contributes to the smooth complex movement of the temperomandibular joint. When the muscles are relaxed and in balance and both jaw joints open and close comfortably, we are able to talk, chew, or yawn without any discomfort or pain.

TMJ disorders can be a very complex set of problems of the jaw joint. The muscles and joints work together in harmony. A problem with either the muscles or the joints or both can lead to stiffness, headaches, ear pain, bite problems (also referred to as a malocclusion), clicking sounds, or locked jaws. TMJ disorders can be caused by many different types of problems. These can include arthritis, trauma to the jaw, or muscle fatigue from clenching or grinding your teeth. TMJ disorders most commonly occur in women between the ages of 30 and 50, but can occur in teens following orthodontic treatment, and in both men and women at any age.

Botox For TMJ Side Effects

Botox For TMJ disorders is not without side effects. Botox itself has common side effects associated with its use in the area of the TMJ. These can include:

-headache

-bruising at injection site

-respiratory infection

-muscle weakness

-flu-like illness

-rash at injection site

-nausea

-skin irritation

-temporary eyelid droop

Botox For TMJ Procedure

Botox for TMJ is a non surgical procedure and completed in your dental office. It usually takes less than 30 minutes to complete.

The site for botox injection can vary depending on your symptoms but may include the following muscles:

  • Temporalis muscle
  • Frontalis muscle
  • Masseter muscle

The injections are made with a small gauge needle and are not considered painful, but you may feel a slight prick or pinch as the Botox is injected into site. Your dentist may use a cold compress or local anesthetic to help reduce discomfort and make it more comfortable for you. Following the procedure, you can return to your regular routine immediately.

Some improvement can be felt within a day or two following Botox for TMJ treatment, it usually takes a few days to feel full relief. Some patients have reported that they feel best about 6-8 weeks following Botox for TMJ treatment.